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Everything about "Android" In a Nutshell!

Android is a mobile operating system developed by Google, based on the Linux kernel and designed primarily for touchscreen mobile devices such as smartphones and tablets. Android's user interface is mainly based on direct manipulation, using touch gestures that loosely correspond to real-world actions, such as swiping, tapping and pinching, to manipulate on-screen objects, along with a virtual keyboard for text input.
In addition to touchscreen devices, Google has further developed Android TV for televisions, Android Auto for cars, and Android Wear for wrist watches, each with a specialized user interface. Variants of Android are also used on game consoles, digital cameras, PCs and other electronics.

The founding of Android:

In October 2003, well before the term “smartphone”was used by most of the public, and several years before Apple announced its first iPhone and its iOS operating system, the company Android Inc was founded in Palo Alto, California. Its four founders were Rich Miner, Nick Sears, Chris White and Andy Rubin. At the time of its public founding, Rubin was quoted as saying that Android Inc was going to develop “smarter mobile devices that are more aware of its owner’s location and preferences.”

In 2005, the next big chapter in Android’s history was made when the original company was acquired by Google. Rubin and other founding members stayed on to continue to develop the OS under their new owners. The decision was made to use Linux as the basis for the Android OS, and that also meant that Android itself could be offered to third-party mobile phone manufacturers for free. Google and the Android team felt the company could make money offering other services that used the OS, including apps.

How did Android get it's name?

If you go back a little to figure out the history Android, you will know that it started as a little company in Palo Alto in California in 2003, founded by Andy Rubin. Google acquired Android Inc in 2005, paving the way for it to become one of the world's best Mobile Operating Systems available.
Now, all of us are familiar with Andy, the little green guy who appears whenever Android is around. Ascender Corporation designed this logo. Android is a robot with a human appearance. I know, you are thinking what I was thinking - the word Android is a new word. We are wrong! The origin of the word Android dates back to the time of Albertus Magnus, who lived between 1193 and 1280.
 Apparently, George Lucas coined the word 'droid' for the original Star Wars film. Philip K ** used the word "Andy" in his novel Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep? And now we have Andy and Android everywhere.

Apparently Andy Rubins was called Android, because apart from working in a company he used to get himself involved in his own projects like developing robots. So, the employees started calling him Android, which later he named his OS.

The Android logo:

The now familiar logo for the Android OS, which looks like a combination of a robot and a green bug, was created by Irina Blok while she was employed by Google.  

The only directive that was given to her design team by Google was to make the logo look like a robot. She claims that the final design was inspired in part by looking at the familiar restroom logos representing “Men” and “Women”.
                                                                      -  In a chat with The New York Times in 2013, Blok 

Preparing for the launch of Android 1.0

The version history of the Android mobile operating system began with the public release of the Android beta in November 5, 2007. The first commercial version, Android 1.0, was released in September 2008. Android is continually developed by Google and the Open Handset Alliance, and it has seen a number of updates to its base operating system since the initial release.

In September 2008, the very first Android smartphone was announced, the T-Mobile G1, also known as the HTC Dream in other parts of the world. It went on sale in the US in October of that year.

Image result for android versions

Android 1.5 Cupcake (API-3): As we stated, the first official public code name for Android didn’t appear until version 1.5 Cupcake was released in April 2009. It added quite a few new features and improvements compared to the first two public versions, including things that we now take for granted, such as the ability to upload videos to YouTube, a way for a phone’s screen display to automatically rotate to the right positions, and support for third-party keyboards.

Android 1.6 Donut (API-4): Google quickly launched Android 1.6 Donut in September 2009,  Some of the new features included in Donut were support for carriers that used CDMA-based networks. This allowed Android phones to be sold by all carriers around the world.

Android 2.0-2.1 Eclair (API-5, 6, 7): In October 2009, about a year after the launch of Android 1.0, Google released version 2.0 of the OS, with the official code name Eclair. This version was the first to add Text-to-Speech support, and also introduced live wallpapers, multiple account support, and Google Maps navigation, among many other new features and improvements.

Android 2.2 Froyo (API-8): Launched in May 2010, Android 2.2 Froyo (short for “frozen yogurt) was officially launched. Smartphones with Froyo installed could take advantage of several new features, including Wi-Fi mobile hotspot functions, push notifications via Android Cloud to Device Messaging (C2DM) service, flash support, and more.

Android 2.3-2.3.7 Gingerbread (API-9, 10): Android 2.3 Gingerbread, launched in September 2010, is currently the oldest version of the OS that Google still lists in its monthly platform version update page. As of September 13 2017, Google indicated that only 0.6 percent of all Android devices are currently running some version of Gingerbread.

Android 3.0-3.2.6 Honeycomb (API-11, 12, 13): This version of the OS is perhaps the odd ball of the bunch. The Honeycomb was released by Google for installation only on tablets and other mobile devices with larger displays than current smartphones. It was first introduced in February 2011, included features such as a redesigned UI specifically for large screens, along with a  notification bar placed on the bottom of a tablet’s display and more.

Android 4.0-4.0.4 Ice Cream Sandwich (API-14, 15): Released in October 2011, the Ice Cream Sandwich version of Android brought a number of new features for users. It combined many of the features of the tablet-only Honeycomb version with the smartphone-oriented Gingerbread. It also included a “favorites tray” on the home screen, along with the first support for unlocking a phone by using its camera to take a picture of its owner’s face. That kind of biometric sign-in support has evolved and improved considerably since then.

Android 4.1-4.3.1 Jelly Bean (API-16, 17, 18): The Jelly Bean era of Android begin in June 2012 with the release of Android 4.1. Google quickly released versions 4.2 and 4.3, both under the Jelly Bean label, in October 2012 and July 2013 respectively.
Some of the new features include in these software updates included new notification features that showed more content or action buttons, along with full support for the Android version of Google’s Chrome web browser, which was included in Android 4.2. Google Now also made an appearance as part of Search, and “Project Butter” was introduced to speed up animations and improve Android’s touch responsiveness.

Android 4.4-4.4.4 KitKat (API-19, 20): The name of Android 4.4 is the only version of the OS that actually uses a previously trademarked name for a piece of candy. Before it officially was launched in September 2013, the company released hints at its Google I/O conference that year, as well as other places, that the Codename for Android 4.4 would actually be called Key Lime Pie. Indeed, most of Google’s Android team thought that was going to be the case as well.

Android 5.0-5.1.1 Lollipop (API-21, 22): First launched in the fall of 2014, Android 5.0 Lollipop was a major shakeup in the overall look of the operating system. It was the first version of the OS that used Google’s new Material Design language, which made liberal use of lighting and shadow effects, among other things, to simulate a paper-like look for the Android user interface. The UI also got some other changes for Lollipop, including a revamped navigation bar, rich notifications for the lockscreen and much more.

Android 6.0-6.0.1 Marshmallow (API-23): Released in the fall of 2015, Android 6.0 Marshmallow used the sweet treat favored by campers over a fire as its main symbol. Internally, Google used “Macadamia Nut Cookie” to describe Android 6.0 before the official Marshmallow announcement. It included features such a new vertically scrolling app drawer, along with Google Now on Tap, native support for fingerprint biometric unlocking of a smartphone, USB Type-C support, the introduction of Android Pay, and much more.

Android 7.0-7.1.2 Nougat (API-24, 25): Version 7.0 of Google’s mobile operating system launched in the fall of 2016. Before Nougat was revealed “Android N” was referred to internally by Google as “New York Cheesecake”. Just some of Nougat’s many new features included better multi-tasking functions for the growing number of smartphones that have bigger displays, such as split-screen mode, along with quick switching between apps.

Android 8.0 Oreo (API-26): In March 2017, Google officially announced and released the first developer preview for Android O, also known as Android 8.0.

In August, Google confirmed that Oreo would indeed be the public name for Android 8.0. It is the second time that Google chose a trademarked name for Android (Oreo is owned by Nabisco). In a break from its tradition, Google showed off the Android Oreo mascot statue for the first time at a press event in New York City, rather than showing the statue first at its Googleplex headquarters.
Do you want Google to continue using sweet candy and treat it as the official code name for future versions of Android? Or, do you want to switch them to another type of food? Tell me what you think about them in the reply given below.

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